Prof. dr hab. Ryszard Markiewicz email@example.com
Prof. dr hab. Ryszard Markiewicz, Founding Partner of Markiewicz & Sroczyński. Professor of legal sciences, specialist in Polish and EU intellectual property laws. Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz has been the Chairman of the Copyright Commision and for many years a director or deputy director of the Intellectual Property Law Institute of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, one the most important European scientific and research centres for copyright and patent laws, competition and consumer laws, media law, etc. Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz has notable achievements in the field of research and legislation related to copyright law, Internet and media law, protection of personal data and databases, unfair competition law and protection of moral rights. He is the author or co-author (mainly with Prof. Janusz Barta) of over a dozen landmark books in the above areas of law, including commentaries, handbooks and monographs, and some 200 other publications. Commonly recognized are his books on copyright, unfair competition, Internet and computer laws, privacy law and media law. Those books offer a detailed approach to the substantive and procedural issues, including penal and tax aspects, etc.
The legal views presented by Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz in his publications have been quoted on many occasions in the Polish courts and applied in practice by the regulatory bodies. They are also frequently used by businesses and authors while negotiating complex agreements, in transactions, or while enforcing their rights before courts and other judicial institutions. Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz has been regularly nominated as an expert in various legislation projects or provided comments on draft laws regulating copyright, personal data protection, database law, and unfair competition law. Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz has a long-time experience in providing legal advice to businesses, dating back to one of Poland’s first privatizations with the participation of foreign capital in 1990. Since more than 20 years, he has been advising Polish and international companies in the form of consultations, legal opinions and analyses, etc. He is the author of several precedential interpretations of law, widely used by companies in court cases of all sorts and in the negotiations of business transactions. Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz has been also the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of a large Polish industrial. Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz is an arbitrator of the Court of Conciliation for Internet Domains of the Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunications. He was a member of the Commission on Law of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of ATRIP, the International Association for the Advancement of Teaching and Research in Intellectual Property. He is also a member of the Editorial Committees of the three well know Polish legal periodicals („Kwartalnik Prawa Prywatnego”, „Glosa” i „Przegląd Prawa Handlowego”). Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz is admitted to practice as a legal counsellor (radca prawny) and is a member of the Cracow Bar.
Prof. dr hab. Ryszard Markiewicz, Founding Partner of Markiewicz & Sroczyński. Professor of legal sciences, specialist in Polish and EU intellectual property laws. Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz has been the Chairman of the Copyright Commision and for many years a director or deputy director of the Intellectual Property Law Institute of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow (www.ipwi.uj.edu.pl/), one the most important European scientific and research centres for copyright and patent laws, competition and consumer laws, media law, etc.
Jarosław Sroczyński firstname.lastname@example.org
Jarosław Sroczyński, Founding Partner of Markiewicz & Sroczyński, is a lawyer (graduate of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow) and an economist (graduate of the Academy of Economics in Cracow). He has 25 years experience of practice in the area of Polish and European Community competition laws. He specializes in the general areas of regulatory law, including privacy, energy and consumer laws. He advises on transactions related to licensing, distribution and franchising, etc. He also practices in unfair competition law and is developing private enforcement advice in antitrust and consumer cases. J. Sroczyński was a partner, and for over 13 years head of competition and antimonopoly law practice, of one of the largest Polish law firms. He has also been associated with a major international law firm, in its Brussels office.
J. Sroczyński has advised on numerous precedential cases of competition law, representing clients before the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection and courts at all levels. His representations include issues of merger control, cartel cases and leniency, abuse of the dominant market position, infringement of the collective consumer interests, etc. He was one of the first competition lawyers in Poland to apply an economic approach in case presentation to the antitrust authorities, including product substitutability analyses and the efficiencies doctrine. For many years, J. Sroczyński has been recognized as a “recommended lawyer” in the fields of competition and antimonopoly laws and on oil & gas laws, in both Polish and international legal rankings. Prior to becoming a practicing lawyer, J. Sroczyński was founder and first director of the Cracow Regional Office of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. For several months, he attended a legislative stage in DG Competition in Brussels, as a national expert. J. Sroczyński has notable achievements in legislation projects. He is the author or co-author of several key legal acts and opinions relative to antimonopoly and consumer legislation. His legislative work includes a draft of the first Polish regulation on leniency procedures, two block exemption regulations (on technology transfer and the insurance sector) and an expert opinion on the first Polish law on counteracting unfair market practices. He also prepared two draft interpretations for the Polish regulator on merger control procedures. J. Sroczyński was the Secretary of a Commission of Experts set up by the President of the Antimonopoly Office, which prepared the draft and justification of the Law of 1993 on Combating Unfair Competition. For almost 3 years, J. Sroczyński advised the Antimonopoly Committee of Ukraine on the development of competition and state aid laws, as “key expert” in the TACIS European Union legal assistance program. J. Sroczyński has been a speaker at numerous Polish and international conferences devoted to the protection of competition and consumers. He has delivered legal seminars on competition law for Bar members and post-graduate students. For many years, he has regularly published “country notes” on Polish competition law in the German periodical “Wirtschaft und Wettbewerb“. J. Sroczyński has been a member of the Supervisory Boards of large Polish companies. He is a Permanent Collaborator of the Centre of Antimonopoly and Regulatory Studies of the Warsaw University (CSAiR). J. Sroczyński is admitted summa cum laude to practice as a legal counsellor (radca prawny), is a member of the Cracow Bar and also was a member of the Foreign Committee of that Cracow Bar.
Jarosław Sroczyński, Founding Partner of Markiewicz & Sroczyński, is a lawyer (graduate of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow) and an economist (graduate of the Academy of Economics in Cracow). He has 25 years experience of practice in the area of Polish and European Community competition laws. He specializes in the general areas of regulatory law, including privacy, energy and consumer laws. He advises on transactions related to licensing, distribution and franchising, etc. He also practices in unfair competition law and is developing private enforcement advice in antitrust and consumer cases.
Dr Michał Markiewicz email@example.com
Michał Markiewicz – Partner of Markiewicz & Sroczyński, attorney-at-law (radca prawny) and doctor of laws, assistant professor at the Intellectual Property Law Department of the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University, editor of a prestigious scientific magazine “Jagiellonian University Journal of IP Law”. In 2017, Michał Markiewicz defended a doctoral dissertation entitled “Joint administration of copyright”. Dr Markiewicz won the Minister of Science and Higher Education Prize for this dissertation, in a competition for the best thesis in intellectual property law organized by the Polish Patent Office.
Since 2015, Michał Markiewicz is an attorney-at-law, member of the Cracow Bar. Dr Markiewicz is interested in issues related to intellectual property law, primarily copyright and civil law, in particular personal rights, including the right to image and protection of correspondence and contract law. Michał Markiewicz conduct lectures in the field of copyright, intellectual property law and internet law at the Jagiellonian University. He also conducted classes within the “IP Student” program at the Jagiellonian University and in the field of copyright law as part of attorney training by the Cracow Bar.
While working at M&S, he participated in the development of court strategies, co-drafted several legal opinions on such subject as protection of architectural design, scope of copyright protection of computer program, copyright protection of the exhibition, plagiarism, qualification of works as pieces in the sense of copyright law, violation of personal rights through a press release, etc. He is the author of a book entitled “Joint administration of copyright” and several articles in scientific magazines, as well as publications by Wolters Kluwer.
Mr. Markiewicz is an active skier. In 2003 he was twice gold medalist in the unofficial Lawyers’ World Championships in the giant slalom and slalom. In 2012 and 2013, Champion of the Polish Legal Advisors and Trainees in giant slalom (in two categories, “open” and “under 35”).
Prof. dr hab. Janusz Barta firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. dr hab. Janusz Barta, Senior Counsel to Markiewicz & Sroczyński. Professor of legal sciences, specialist in Polish and EU intellectual property laws. Prof. Janusz Barta has been a member of the Copyright Commision and for many years a director or deputy director of the Intellectual Property Law Institute of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, one the most important European scientific and research centres for copyright and patent laws, competition and consumer laws, media law, etc. The professional biography of Prof. Janusz Barta is in many respects similar to that of Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz, as they have worked in close cooperation for several decades. Prof. Janusz Barta is a leading Polish specialist in copyright, media and Internet laws, the protection of personal data and databases, unfair competition law and the protection of moral rights. He is the author of the first Polish monograph on the rights of composers of musical works. As author or co-author, primarily with Prof. Ryszard Markiewicz, he has published authoritative books and commentaries in several fields of Polish intellectual property law. Prof. Janusz Barta is also author or co-author of over 200 other publications, including monographs, articles, reviews and judicial comments, etc.
The legal views expressed by Prof. Janusz Barta in his publications have been frequently used as a source of reference in precedential court cases, in arbitration or in the business practice of companies and authors. Prof. Barta conducted pioneer analyses of entirely new legal developments and categories, as these were entering into the business practice of Poland. By way of an example, his legal analyses of the Internet, of cable TV and of open source software can be mentioned. Prof. Janusz Barta has considerable achievements in the development of Polish IP legislation. He was member of several commissions preparing new draft laws or legislative opinions in the field of copyright and privacy laws, the protection of databases and in unfair competition law. He is also a recognized specialist in the European Community and international aspects of intellectual property laws and of privacy laws. Prof. Janusz Barta has been advising businesses for nearly 20 years, primarily in the form of legal opinions, consultations, day-to-day assistance and monitoring court cases in IP matters. For many years he has performed the function of member of the Supervisory Boards of large Polish companies, including a company active in the field of IT. Prof. Barta is an arbitrator of the Court of Conciliation for Internet Domains of the Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunications. He is a member of the Commission on Law of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of ATRIP, the International Association for the Advancement of Teaching and Research in Intellectual Property. He is also an editor of Volume XII (Copyright Law) of the “System of Private Law” and a member of the Editorial Committees of several legal periodicals (“Computer Law Review”, “Państwo i Prawo”, “Przegląd Prawa Handlowego”, „Kwartalnik Prawa Prywatnego” and “Zeszyty Naukowe UJ”). He is the winner of a prestigious international legal prize, granted in 1985 by CISAC (Confédération Internationale des Sociétés d’Auteurs et Compositeurs) for the best doctoral thesis on copyright law.
Dr Sybilla Stanisławska-Kloc email@example.com
Dr Sybilla Stanisławska-Kloc, Counsel to Markiewicz & Sroczyński. She is a graduate of the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Poland, a doctor of juridical science, an advocate, and arbitrator at the domain court of the Polish Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Copyright Commison. She is an assistant professor at the Institute of Intellectual Property Law of the Jagiellonian University and a permanent lecturer in civil law and copyright law at the Jagiellonian University and the Polish and European Law School in Ukraine. She has delivered lectures at the Jagiellonian University as part of the “IP Student” program. Dr. Stanisławska-Kloc has completed her training at court (with a final judge’s examination) and advocate bar; she also fulfilled a legal trainee placement at a law firm in London. She has completed the Postgraduate School of Copyrights, Publishing and Press Law and the Postgraduate School of Competition Law at the Jagiellonian University. She is currently working on her habilitation thesis, which is on the protection of the right to authorship and the problems of plagiarism. Dr. Stanisławska-Kloc has been working with the Bar Research Centre and was an expert (adviser) at the National Centre for Research and Development. During the years 2005-2007, she coordinated the Polish section of one of packages within the EU IPR-Helpdesk project. Approximately one hundred documents devoted to intellectual property were prepared under this project.
Dr. Stanisławska-Kloc is the author of a monograph – the first in Poland – on the issues of copyright and the sui generis protection of databases. She has also written for scientific and popular science publications on intellectual property rights, including the permitted use of texts (in libraries and citations), “orphaned” texts, plagiarism and problems with Internet addresses, as well as procedures for solving disputes regarding intellectual property within the WTO (mediation and arbitration). She is the co-author of numerous entries in the Encyclopaedia of Law. She has written on the rulings of the European Court of Justice regarding the Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters for the Quarterly Magazine of Private Law (Kwartalnik Prawa Prywatnego). In 2002, commissioned by the Scientific and Academic Computer Network, she prepared an opinion regarding the first project on the principles of registering Internet domains. As an expert for the Ministry of Culture, Dr. Stanisławska-Kloc contributed to numerous papers (in Spain and Brussels) on the subject of the implementation into Polish law of EU Directive 2001/29/EC on the harmonization of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society and EU directive No. 2004/48/EC regarding the enforcement of intellectual property rights. As a scholarship student at the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property, Competition and Tax Law in 2008, Dr. Stanisławska-Kloc participated in numerous national and international scientific conferences on intellectual property law, lecturing on many occasions. Within the framework of an EU PHARE project, implemented by TWIGGER, she ran training sessions for judges in relation to intellectual property law. She actively cooperates with the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland and has delivered lectures to patent agents. In 2008, on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the establishment of the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland, Dr. Stanisławska-Kloc was honoured by a special award from the Chairman of the Patent Office, given to people who have served with particular distinction in the protection of industrial property. Dr. Stanisławska-Kloc acts as an advisor in respect of copyright law, civil law (including the protection of moral rights), publishing law, Internet law, database and personal data protection, etc. She deals with issues of unfair competition, including unfair advertising and parasitic imitation. She also specialises in archival, library and museum law. In the above-mentioned fields, Dr. Stanisławska-Kloc practices legal counselling and acts as representative attorney in negotiations and court proceedings.
Marcin Mioduszewski firstname.lastname@example.org
Marcin Mioduszewski – legal counsel, graduated in legal studies from the Department of Law and Administration at the Jagiellonian University, where he is currently a PhD student. Mr. Mioduszewski specializes in intellectual property law, particularly in copyright in the information society, regulations concerning competition and consumer protection and telecommunications laws. His interests focus on the legal protection of software and the responsibility for materials made accessible on the Internet.
He has also completed a post-graduate course entitled “Information Society” at the Department of Physics, Astronomy and Computers at the Jagiellonian University. He speaks English fluently, as well as German and Arabic.
He has completed internships at the Legal Department of the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, the Department of Trademarks and the Department of Public Procurement of Poland’s Patent Office.
Mr. Mioduszewski’s work as a lawyer has included handling copyright issues and cases concerned with information technology, with issues of combating unfair competition and with consumer rights protection, especially in the digital environment. He has drawn up draft license agreements in the field of copyright trading and related regulations. He has also drafted legal opinions, especially on the subject of using modern digital technologies to content access. He has participated in matters related to the implementation of new business models related to intellectual property rights, as well as competition and consumer protection. He has also assisted in counseling telecommunication companies. Additionally, he has organized and managed legal and IT projects, being the co-author of “Servius” – an IT system providing legal support.
Mr. Mioduszewski is also the inventor and co-author of an advanced IT system for providing legal services basing on the concept of algorythmization of law and elements of artificial intelligence, which is being developed with his team under the auspices of Markiewicz & Sroczyński law firm.
Mr. Mioduszewski is also interested in the legal implications of the information society for public administration. He has taken part in projects connected with the computerization of public administration in the fields of telecommunication law, competition and consumer protection and intellectual property rights.
Mr. Mioduszewski has worked with legal companies in Great Britain and Ireland on cases connected with competition protection and international civil procedures; for example, he assisted in preparing legal expert opinions for British courts.
Mr. Mioduszewski is a co-author of the commentary to the act on counteracting unfair competition (2011). and also he is the author of many publications in the field of intellectual property law and the legal issues of computerization in public administration; amongst other publications, he has worked with the magazine “IT in Administration”.
Mr. Mioduszewski has lectured on intellectual property rights, competition and consumer protection and information protection at conferences and training courses for the publishing, telecommunication and IT sectors.
As part of his charity work, Mr. Mioduszewski is Chief Legal Officer of WIOSNA association and the person in charge of its legal department, as well as a member of this association itself.
Mr. Mioduszewski has served as a member of the Board of the Cluster of Industries of Culture and Leisure Time “INRET” in Cracow.
Dr Jakub Chwalba email@example.com
Dr Jakub Chwalba obtained a degree in administration (MPA 2005) and law (MJur 2007) from the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow. He also completed Postgraduate Studies in Copyright, Publishing and Press Law at the Institute of Intellectual Property of the Jagiellonian University (2008). In 2012, after completion of his doctoral studies at the Jagiellonian University, he defended his doctoral dissertation entitled An architectural work – subject of copyright protection. For his dissertation, dr Chwalba won the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage Prize in a competition organised by the Polish Patent Office. Since, 2008, dr Chwalba is an assistant professor at the Intellectual Property Law Department of the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University. He focuses on intellectual property law and press law.
Dr Michał Wyrwiński firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr Michał Wyrwiński – legal counsel in Markiewicz & Sroczyński law firm. A graduate of the Faculty of Law and Administration at the Jagiellonian University (2002 – First Class Honours). He is an attorney-at-law (radca prawny) and member of the Regional Bar Association in Rzeszów. In 2008, he completed his bar exams with top grades and was awarded a PhD degree in Law at the Faculty of Law and Administration (the Jagiellonian University). A scholar of the Foundation for Polish Science (2008).
He specialises in copyright law, consumer protection law, digital content, rendering electronic services, protecting personal rights and contract law.
Currently, he is an assistant professor at the Intellectual Property Law Institute (the Jagiellonian University) and he prepared a habilitation thesis on moral rights protection. He cooperated with the Polish-German Banking Law Centre, the Jagiellonian University (2002-2008) and with the Coordination Centre for Foreign Law Schools, the Jagiellonian University.
Since 2009, as an active legal counsel, he has been providing legal assistance to entrepreneurs, particularly in the media industry. He acts in lawsuits as well as in proceedings before regulatory authorities. As an expert, he passes judgements in cases concerning the implementation of procedures and regulations of websites or mobile applications, the strategies relating to personal rights protection, digital content, digital platforms and consumer law.
He conducts numerous courses for judges, consumer advocates, trainee solicitors, lawyers or attorneys-at-law in association with the National School of Judiciary and Public Prosecution, the Consumer Advocates Association, and the Accountants Association in Poland, branch office in Cracow.
As an expert in intellectual property rights and civil law, he participates in legislative projects including web-based middleware platforms. He was a member of a Working Party on contracts for services on the Civil Law Codification Committee.
Szymon Niżegorodcew email@example.com
Szymon Niżegorodcew – Counsel to Markiewicz & Sroczyński GP and Counsel/Coordinator of legal services in the Orange Group. Graduated from the Department of Law and Administration at the Jagiellonian University. Mr. Niżegorodcew has worked as Legal Counsel at Bank Handlowy in Warsaw. Mr. Niżegorodcew has worked also as a General Counsel at EmiTel TP (TP Group), as a Secretary of the Management Board and as a Supervisory Board of PayTel.
He specializes in economic issues, including the extent of concentration of undertakings, antitrust law, abuse of dominant position and unfair competition. Mr. Niżegorodcew is also interested in regulated markets in banking, telecommunications and energy, as well as corporate services for large enterprises. Mr. Niżegorodcew has also experience in litigation in the district and administrative courts.
Dominika Markiewicz firstname.lastname@example.org
Dominika Markiewicz – legal counsel, graduated in legal studies from the Department of Law and Administration at the Jagiellonian University and from the Faculty of Law, Economics and Management at the University of Orléans (Master II). She is training in to become a legal counsel, as aplikantka radcowska.
She also finished Summer University of Continental Law in Paris, organised by The Fondation pour le Droit Continental at Paris Sorbonne University and graduated from the French Law Program – School of French Law administred by the University of Orléans. She participated in Erasmus programme at the Toulouse Univeristy.
During studies she collaborated with Section of Intellectual Property Law of Towarzystwo Biblioteki Słuchaczów Prawa Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego (TBSP UJ). She has been speaker at the polish – french conference “Competition law at the junction of European, domestic, public and private law”. She also participated in a number of activities deepening practical legal knowledge, including a workshop on competition law and a series of training courses on intellectual property and competition law “IP Student”, organized by the Institute of Intellectual Property Law at the Jagiellonian University and TBSP UJ in collaboration with law firms, as well as workshops on capital market and securities law.
She is developing interest in the broad sense of competition and civil law.
She speaks English and French fluently.
Zuzanna Ochońska email@example.com
Zuzanna Ochońska graduated as Master of Law from legal studies at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. She is a trainee to become a legal counsel (radca prawny) at Cracow Bar Association. Ms. Ochońska is also a PhD student at the Intellectual Property Law Department of the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University.
During her legal studies, Ms. Ochońska was Vicepresident of the Alternative Dispute Resolution Group of the Jagiellonian University students research organization (TBSP UJ). She organized the Polish Students Mediation Competition „#mediUJ!”, was a finalist of the Polish Mediation Competition „Masters of Mediation (2013 through 2015), and completed a business mediation course.
Ms. Ochońska was also active in the Intellectual Property and Criminal Procedure Groups of TBSP UJ. She is a co-author of publications e.g. “The issue of copyrights as an object contribution to the company”. She also worked as an intern in the Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) and in a major publishing house Wydawnictwo Literackie.
Ms. Ochońska is interested in intellectual property law, competition law and personal interests protection.
She speaks English fluently.
Klaudia Wojakowska-Grochot firstname.lastname@example.org
Klaudia Wojakowska-Grochot graduated as Master of Law from legal studies at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. She is a trainee to become a legal counsel (radca prawny) at Cracow Bar Association.
Mrs. Wojakowska-Grochot obtained Prime Minister’s and Jagiellonian University Rector’s scholarships for outstanding students.
She gained professional experience during her practice at law firms, where she advised both individuals and legal entities in the areas of civil and commercial law.
Mrs. Wojakowska-Grochot also provided legal assistance to members of Polish Parliament and was managing, as a volunteer, the activities of several local legal clinics. As member of a 12-person Interpellation Deregulatory Panel, she was cooperating with numerous entrepreneurs from the Małopolska region. In 2014-2018, she was also member of the Municipal Council of the Biskupice municipality.
In her legal practice, Mrs. Wojakowska-Grochot focuses on EU commercial law, competition and consumer laws, and new technologies law.
Klaudia Wojakowska-Grochot speaks English fluently.
Julian Tateno email@example.com
Julian Tateno – graduated as Master of the Law from legal studies at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków.
Alumnus of the Lesław A. Paga Foundation.
During legal studies, Mr. Tateno held position of the Vice President for Academic Activities of the Cracow local group of the European Law Student Association of ELSA Poland and Vice-President of the Medical Law Research Group.
He gained professional experience at the Medical Law Section of the Jagiellonian University Legal Clinic, and thereafter in one of the leading capital groups on the medical market and in a recognized Cracow law firm.
His interests are focused on competition, consumer and regulatory law.
He speaks English fluently.
Aneta Słaboń-Pawłowska firstname.lastname@example.org
Office Manager at Markiewicz & Sroczyński GP. She graduated from the University of Economics in Cracow, in management and marketing studies.
She is fluent in English and also speaks German.
Mrs. Słaboń-Pawłowska organizes and supervises everyday matters of our office, she also coordinates billing and accounting matters. She is responsible for customer relations in the field of marketing and legal service agreements.
In addition, Mrs. Słaboń-Pawłowska coordinates the flow of incoming and outgoing mail, and manages contacts with suppliers of the firm. She also organizes and participates in the recruitment process.
Mrs. Słaboń-Pawłowska has significant experience in the organization of events for our law office.
In 2012, Mrs. Słaboń-Pawłowska co-organized a multiday event in Cracow, for a group of about 100 lawyers from around the world.